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By George Stanley Reynolds

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L~~ Qf Jh~. 1Lfollowing ··the behavior ... Q'X. th~_beha:vior. b,uLnee-d- nG-t- do--se , For example, electrical circuitry determines that the lights must go out in a room when the switch is thrown. Thus, the relation between the behavior of turning the switch and the Acquisition and Extinction of Operant Behavior 31 f( consequential darkness is dependent. The relation between turning the switch and other ensuing events, such as perhaps the bark of a dog in the next house, is likely to be contingent.

Pi. that is r~inforced. After this behavior has been firmly established and is occurring frequently, reinforcement is again r discontinued, variation again increases for a short time, and a response still closer to the desired one is selected from the variation \ and is reinforced. _PFg~e~s is _called shaping because we ,actually shape a particular response from the available behavior of the organism in much ~ the same way that a sculptor shapes a statue from the clay he has to work with. Thus, we might begin by reinforcing any movement 1 which the organism makes.

4. 3 Some effects of generalization on the formation of a discrimination. 80 Part 1 ~ 5z Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 60 5§ ~ ~ p,.. en ~ en Z 40 0p,.. ,, en ~ ~ , 20 Responding \ on yellOw'"" ,1\, / 'IL. O~__________~______~-~-~-~·~-~+~~~~~~~~ 1 7 44 A Primer of Operant Conditioning 14 DAILY SESSIONS 21 l \ .... , ____________ ... _. -- .... ~ 28 experiment, when the procedure was identical. This result is preceded, however, by a surge of responding up to a medium rate in the presence of orange and yellow and to a reliably higher rate in orange.

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A primer of operant conditioning by George Stanley Reynolds

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