By Henry E Roscoe; Carl Schorlemmer; John Cannell Cain; Charles Henry Jeens; Bernard Mouat Jones
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Crucial job of the analytical chemist, other than the purchase of experimental info, is the coordination and interpretation of such information by way of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the try substance. As within the previous story of the blind males and the elephant, a unmarried commentary or try out, no longer thought of at the side of others, could lead on to completely inaccurate conclusions.
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In the second memoir he develops Iris theory, denying the existence of any " principle of combustibility," as upheld by Stahl, stating that the metals, and such substances as carbon, sulphur, &a, are simple bodies which on combustion enter into combination with oxygen, and concluding that Stahl's supposition of the existence of phlogiston in the metals, &c, is entirely gratuitous, and more likely to retard than to advance the progress of science. The triumph of the antiphlogistic (Lavoisierian) doctrines was, however, uot complete until the discovery of -the compoundnature of water by Cavendish in 1783 became fully known..
Hydrogen..... A20t Carbon...... Ammonia . . . Oxygen Water Phosphorus . . Phosphuretted hydrogen Nitrous gas . . Kther Gaseous oxide of carbon 1 4-2 4-3 5*2 6*5 6-6 7*2 8*2 9*3 9*6 9*8 Nitrous oxide . . Sulphur . . ' . Hypo-nitric acid . Sulphuretted hydrogen Carbonic acid . . Alcohol Sulphureous acid . Sulphuric acid . . Carburetted hydrogen, from stagnant water. Olefiantgas . . 13"7 144 15*2 15*4 15*3 10-1 19*9 25*4 6*3 5*3 Thus then, at the end of a paper on a physical subject, does JDalton make known a principle the discovery of which at once placed the science of chemistry upon its true basis, and has rendered the name of its discoverer second only to that of Lavoisier amongst the founders of the science.
Especially striking was the progress made during these years in the domain of Organic Chemistry, or the chemistry of the substances found in, or obtained front, vegetable or animal bodies. Dalton had in vain endeavoured to obtain analytical results to prove that the complicated Organic bodies obeyed the same laws as the more simple Inorganic compounds. I t Is to Berzelius that we owe the proof that this is really the case, and bis exact analyses placed organic chemistry in this respect on a firm and satisfactory basis.
A treatise on chemistry by Henry E Roscoe; Carl Schorlemmer; John Cannell Cain; Charles Henry Jeens; Bernard Mouat Jones