By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson
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Additional resources for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)
Nesting success did not decline in 1977 as a result of the unbalanced sex ratio (34 males : 80 females) caused by the removal of 25 males in 1976. Based only on banded hens, the mini- 40 A. T. BERGERUD Fig. 6. Mortality and survival rates of grouse on Moresby Island.
Hooting was classified by the number of syllables it contained and by how many songs were sung per minute over a 5-minute period. Most data, however, were obtained by presenting grouse with artifical situations such as encounters with field workers, and recording the birds' reactions. The response of a bird, whose location had been indicated by a pointing dog, to a slow stalk by the observer was measured by recording when and at what distance it flushed, displayed, and sang, and showed distraction or brood defense and other behaviors, and its reactions to other birds present.
Blue grouse have many visual signals that they use in intraspecific encounters. As has been shown, grouse differed in the ease with which we could observe them. Some birds used behavior that seemed to have the function of reducing visibility. This behavior, called "crouch-and-run" (Mossop 1971), was also observed in yearling males when near territorial cocks. When stalked by humans, birds varied in their use of "crouch-and-run" (Fig. 8). There was no difference in the frequency of this behavior between grouse at the two low areas.
Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2) by Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson